Types of Remnant Cores
Remnant Processing Core: A Moderate value salvage material.
Remnant Core: Ultra Rare Material used for crafting.
Remnant Data Core: An unusual collection quest item, usually found floating mysteriously levitating in Remnant vaults. The quest is to collect 9 of 9, but there are more than 9 in the game, and despite the effort involved, there is no story reward for completion, or item/area unlock. These items do not show up in inventory, and sometimes the game will not tell you when you acquire them. Before the first patch, this quest was not even tracked. Mysterious indeed.
Adaptive Remnant Core Device: Spindly artifacts, often glowing or slowly revolving. Each individual core can generally be scanned for a burst of Remnant research data.
Remnant Drive Core: A story item involved in the quest to establish an outpost on Elaaden. Looks a lot like two Adaptive Remnant Cores tipped into each other.
Remnant Water Purification Core: To be fair, no one in the game actually gives this a name, but honestly- what do you think they would call it?